The term “beer” as used in this Code covers all types of malt beverages, including but not limited to, beers and flavored malt beverages, as well as various specialty products containing alcohol such as hard cider. The production, distribution, and sale of beer in the United States are subject to extensive laws and regulations, enforced by federal, state, and local governments. Federal and state laws establish a three-tiered distribution system for beer. The first tier is composed of beer manufacturers and importers, which are referenced throughout this Code as “Brewers.” The second tier is made up of wholesale distributors, and the third tier includes a wide range of licensed retail outlets, at which beer is sold to consumers. Companies in each tier of this distribution system are required by law to maintain their commercial independence. The Beer Institute encourages all with whom Brewers do business to adhere to the law, as well as this voluntary Advertising and Marketing Code.