We aim to publish widely indexed, carefully copyedited, high-quality manuscripts, that are also deposited in repositories such as PubMed Central, publication of an accepted paper requires expensive production steps such as copyediting, reference checking and XML tagging. In the editing & production stage, JMIR employs professional full-time staff and freelancers, including copyeditors (most journals such as PLOS do not include copyediting). To defray these costs (and because we cannot sell subscriptions like toll-access journals) we require authors to pay certain fees. Authors publishing in JMIR are paying a nominal submission fee ($90), an article processing fee (APF) only in case of acceptance, and (optionally) a fast-track fee for expedited review. These fees are usually funded from research grants, and new researchers in the area are urged to budget for open access publications in their grant proposals, much as they budget for conference presentations (please budget about $2000 per article). When comparing the costs for publishing in JMIR against the cost of publishing in other OA journals, please consider that 1) JMIR is consistently ranked #1 in its field by impact factor, 2) JMIR employs professional copyediting after acceptance, which is a service many OA journals with lower costs do not provide. Given these considerations, JMIR is currently one of the most cost-effective OA journals on the market. For a detailed fee overview see Instructions for Authors .
The biological sciences have lagged behind the physical sciences in their use of preprints. Based on the success of arXiv, bioRxiv was introduced in 2013, operated by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory,   Therapoid Preprint was launched in 2017 by Open Therapeutics ,  and ChemRxiv was announced in 2016 hosted by the American Chemical Society .  In 2017, it was confirmed that ChemRxiv will be powered by figshare .  Articles undergo basic screening for offensive and/or non-scientific content but do not undergo a peer review process.